Fuelled by cheap capital and new technology, including artificial intelligence and, possibly, quantum computing , innovation will burn through industry after industry. For example, costs at American colleges and universities have increased almost five times faster than consumer prices in the past 40 years, even as teaching has barely changed, making it tempting to disrupters. Further technological progress in renewable sources of energy, smart grids and battery storage are all vital steps on the path to replacing fossil fuels. Another reason to expect change—or, at least, to wish for it—is that covid-19 has served as a warning. The 80bn animals slaughtered for food and fur each year are Petri dishes for the viruses and bacteria that evolve into a lethal human pathogen every decade or so.

It’s already clear that projected global economic growth will turn negative in 2020. In fact, governments around the world are bracing for significant economic fallout. Although this global pandemic has redefined global solidarity, courage and creativity, its magnitude has called for unprecedented policy innovation and thinking at a nation-state level. Confronting this crisis has meant that nation states alone will need to define the actions needed to determine the strength and speed of recovery. Most MENA countries have now opened their economic war chests and are implementing some forms of stimulus packages.

RSF prioritizes high-quality research projects with strong research designs. We welcome innovative methods for data collection, such as the use of cellphone-based time-use diaries, de-identified cell-phone GPS location tracking or social media data, administrative data, or other sources. Cross-sectional surveys with convenience samples will not be considered.

Unfortunately, it appears that the brunt of the bleak economic outlook will be felt more by younger people. Read more about buy YouTube Views here. Our regional governments in MENA, particularly in the GCC, will choose to tailor their employment measures and policies in favor of its national citizens as a key priority for the recovery. The current mix of work from home and at-work social distancing, combined with economic anxiety, is driving an unequal opportunity dynamic in the regional labor market. More highly skilled individuals are easily adapting to working from home.

These waves suggest that the virus isn’t just going to vanish and that it could be years before we see the end of periodic lockdowns and economic uncertainty. While the United States is unlikely to experience a repeat of what went down in 2020, COVID-19 is unpredictable and remains a real threat to the economy. Avoiding future lockdowns will be critical, as will keeping inflation under control and ironing out supply chain bottlenecks. The good news is that the U.S. economy started to rebound later in 2020. Also, despite the virus continuing to cause disruptions, there is hope that the vaccination of the population and growing immunity should pave the way for a brighter future.